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What Is Artificial Intelligence (AI)?  |  Google Cloud

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A common type of training model in AI is an artificial neural network, a model loosely based on the human brain. 

A neural network is a system of artificial neurons—sometimes called perceptrons—that are computational nodes used to classify and analyze data. The data is fed into the first layer of a neural network, with each perceptron making a decision, then passing that information onto multiple nodes in the next layer. Training models with more than three layers are referred to as “deep neural networks” or “deep learning.” Some modern neural networks have hundreds or thousands of layers. The output of the final perceptrons accomplish the task set to the neural network, such as classify an object or find patterns in data. 

Some of the most common types of artificial neural networks you may encounter include:

Feedforward neural networks (FF) are one of the oldest forms of neural networks, with data flowing one way through layers of artificial neurons until the output is achieved. In modern days, most feedforward neural networks are considered “deep feedforward”with several layers (and more than one “hidden” layer). Feedforward neural networks are typically paired with an error-correction algorithm called “backpropagation” that, in simple terms, starts with the result of the neural network and works back through to the beginning, finding errors to improve the accuracy of the neural network. Many simple but powerful neural networks are deep feedforward.

Recurrent neural networks (RNN) differ from feedforward neural networks in that they typically use time series data or data that involves sequences. Unlike feedforward neural networks, which use weights in each node of the network, recurrent neural networks have “memory” of what happened in the previous layer as contingent to the output of the current layer. For instance, when performing natural language processing, RNNs can “keep in mind” other words used in a sentence. RNNs are often used for speech recognition, translation, and to caption images. 

Long/short term memory (LSTM) are an advanced form of RNN that can use memory to “remember” what happened in previous layers. The difference between RNNs and LTSM is that LTSM can remember what happened several layers ago, through the use of “memory cells.” LSTM is often used in speech recognition and making predictions. 

Convolutional neural networks (CNN) includesome of the most common neural networks in modern artificial intelligence. Most often used in image recognition, CNNs use several distinct layers (a convolutional layer, then a pooling layer) that filter different parts of an image before putting it back together (in the fully connected layer). The earlier convolutional layers may look for simple features of an image such as colors and edges, before looking for more complex features in additional layers.

Generative adversarial networks (GAN) involve two neural networks competing against each other in a game that ultimately improves the accuracy of the output. One network (the generator) creates examples that the other network (the discriminator) attempts to prove true or false. GANs have been used to create realistic images and even make art.

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